About Janet Frame

Known primarily as a prose-writer, Janet Frame’s passion since the age of nine was for poetry. She never stopped writing poems, expressing the recurrent themes of nature, animals, people, death and writing itself, and aiming for a “truthful vocabulary of what is and is not”. Yet she only published one volume of poetry, The Pocket Mirror, during her lifetime. A posthumous selection of the overwhelming number of poems she left behind was published in The Goose Bath, the title referring to the container in which Frame kept the poems.

The majority of the poems here, recited by Frame in 2002, were later incorporated into The Goose Bath. Only one, ‘The Flowering Cherry’, read in 1974, comes from The Pocket Mirror. Its subtle use of rhetoric functions to enmesh humanity with nature, creating an entangled analogy between a pawnbroker’s sign and cherries. The sight of the tree creates a debt of immense wonder that can never be repaid, which identifies it with the pawnbroker. The William Blake quotation signals a characteristic intertextuality to evoke the despair and violence that can ensue from such a debt.

Frame read The Flowering Cherry in her prime. Her voice is assured, soft and gentle, yet astonishingly clear. She elucidates the poem’s complex meaning by letting the rhythm determine and stress the most significant words. The other poems, read nearly thirty years later, show the elderly Frame at ease with a broader NZ accent. Although she is sometimes breathless, the same precise enunciation illuminates the maximum value of each word.

‘The Icicles’ also shows nature from an idiosyncratic perspective, revealing an extraordinary mind at work, which constantly transgresses boundaries. Frame creates a tension between disparate words, such as congratulate and severity, or courage and hard hearts, that anthropomorphize icicles, only to have them melt and lose their identity. This interplay between figurative and literal introduces a cyclical narrative that gives a new insight on a universal situation.

The exchange between humanity and nature is expressed in ‘The Old Bull’ as well. Frame uses an extended metaphor to compare traffic to a herd, and a retired farmer and his prize bull are united in spending their last days watching cars pass by.

Frame’s own attitude to wonder waxes pedagogical in ‘Daniel’. Her mastery of language is evident and the word-play, echoed by the rhymes, demonstrates Frame’s sense of both music and humour.

‘Scarlet Tanager, Saratoga Springs’ shows Frame’s synergetic tendency to mix genres. Originally in the first person, it was printed as part of Living in the Maniototo. The bird is skilfully evoked; its experience becoming a trope for the protagonist’s own. In the novel, the poem figures her escape from the institution of marriage, enabling her to sing/write again.

Additional material and useful links

The Aotearoa & Waiata New Zealand Poetry Archive

This recording, bibliography and introductory essay are kindly provided by collaboration with the Aotearoa & Waiata New Zealand Poetry Archive, a pioneering resource of modern & contemporary...


Dear Charles, Dear Janet: Frame and Brasch in...

Storms Will Tell: Selected Poems, Bloodaxe, 2008


The Goose Bath, Random House / Vintage New Zealand, 2008

Janet Frame Stories and Poems: The Lagoon and The Pocket...


1965 Robert Burns Fellow, University of Otago

Prize website

1967-1969 Residencies at Yaddo Artists' Community, New York

1969 MacDowell Fellow, MacDowell Colony, New Hampshire

Prize website

1969 New Zealand Literary Fund Award for Achievement, The Pocket Mirror

1970-71 Residencies at Yaddo Artists' Community, New York

1971 NZ Government Annuity for Services to NZ Literature

1978 Honorary Doctorate of Literature, University of Otago

1983 CBE (Commander of the British Empire)

1984 Turnovsky Prize for Outstanding Achievement in the Arts

1986 Honorary Foreign Member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters

Prize website

1987 Inaugural Frank Sargeson Fellow, University of Auckland

1990 Member of the Order of New Zealand

1992 Honorary Doctorate of Literature, University of Waikato

1993 Premi Brancati Prize, Italy

1994 Massey University Medal

1996 Gabriela Mistral Medal, Chile

2003 Arts Foundation of New Zealand Icon Artist

Prize website

2003 Prime Minister's Award for Literary Achievement (in Fiction)

Prize website

2007 Montana NZ Book Award for Poetry, The Goose Bath

Prize website